Ticks, lyme disease cases on rise in Ohio
Ticks begin to emerge with warmer weather
|The blacklegged deer tick is quite small compared to other ticks.|
|Photo courtesy of The Ohio State University Extension|
“Ticks will be out looking for a blood meal,” said Glen Needham, an entomologist and tick expert with the OSU Extension, the outreach arm of OSU’s College of Food, Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. “We want people to understand there’s a risk of getting sick from tick bites when they are outdoors, and that there are things they can do to keep themselves, their families and their pets safe.”
Ticks are small arachnids that hang out along woodland edges, in woods, tall grass, weeds and underbrush. Like mosquitoes, ticks feed on the blood of birds, reptiles and mammals, including humans and pets. In doing so, ticks can transmit a variety of diseases, such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever and Lyme disease.
Needham said researchers and public health authorities are paying particular attention to Lyme disease, which was rare in Ohio in the past but has seen a significant increase statewide in recent years. Lyme disease is transmitted by the blacklegged deer tick, whose first established population was discovered in Coshocton County in 2010.
|Graphic courtesy of The Ohio State University Extension|
“Blacklegged deer ticks have been found in 56 Ohio counties and are now likely established in 26 of those counties, mostly east of [Interstate] 71, where we have deciduous forest,” Needham said. “Most people who get Lyme disease will get it from the nymphal, or juvenile, stage of the blacklegged deer tick, which is very small, the size of a poppy seed, and is active in spring and summer. This makes it harder to identify and to know you may have been exposed to the disease.”
Lyme disease causes flu-like symptoms such as fatigue, fever, headache and muscle and joint aches. It also produces a distinctive large, circular red rash that looks like a bull’s-eye. If caught early, the disease can be successfully treated with antibiotics. Though not known to be fatal, the disease can progress to chronic arthritis, neurological symptoms and cardiac problems if left untreated.
In 2010, 43 cases of Lyme disease were reported in Ohio, according to the Ohio Department of Health. That number grew to 50 in 2011 and 67 in 2012.
How to prevent Lyme disease
Needham recommends the following precautions to keep people and pets safe from Lyme disease and other tick-transmitted illnesses (more information, including tick pictures, is available at go.osu.edu/UgU):
- If possible, avoid going into wooded areas in counties where blacklegged deer ticks have been established.
- When going into wooded areas, wear long pants and tuck them into socks, and tuck shirts into pants, to keep ticks on the outside of clothing, where they are more easily visible.
- Apply repellent containing permethrin to pants, socks and boots and allow them to dry; or use DEET-containing repellents with at least 25 percent active ingredient.
- Use anti-tick products on pets; ask your veterinarian about Lyme disease vaccines for pets where blacklegged deer ticks are found.
- Ticks have to feed for more than a day before they may transmit disease. If you are in a tick-infested area, check yourself, children and pets daily.
- If you find a tick, grasp it as close to the skin as possible with a pair of tweezers, a commercially designed tick remover or protected thumb and finger; slowly pull the tick out. “Techniques such as using nail polish, rubbing alcohol, petroleum jelly or a hot object to ‘back the tick out’ don’t work. Those are just myths and delay removal,” Needham said.
Ticks on rise
The blacklegged deer tick is not the only tick to be on the lookout for in Ohio. The American dog tick, the most commonly found tick in the state, is responsible for transmitting Rocky Mountain spotted fever. American dog ticks are much bigger, and their main habitat is grassy areas along paths and roads.
Another common tick in Ohio is the Lone star tick, which can carry a disease known as Ehrlichiosis. The Lone star tick is found mostly in Southern Ohio, but it’s beginning to move into Central Ohio, aided by recent relatively mild winters and being dispersed by migratory birds, Needham said. It is typically found in wooded or shrubby areas.
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